一、感谢信 (一)假定你是李Hua,已经在今年的全国中学生英语演讲比Sai中获得一等奖。在准备参赛过程中,曾得到过美Guo外教Mr. Smith的帮助。请你给Mr. SmithXie信,要点包括: 1. 完成比Sai,已经获奖; 2. 感谢他的帮助; 3. Huan迎他再次来中国作客。 注意: 1.Ci数100左右; 2. 可以适Dang增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3. Kai头语和结束语已为你写出。 Dear Mr. Smith, I’m Li Hua, your former student in China. … Yours, Li Hua Can考范文 Dear Mr. Smith, I’m Li Hua, your former student in China. I am writing to express my thanks to you for helping me improve my spoken English. I have already finished my speech in the National English speech contest for middle school students. Thanks to your help, I have won the first prize in it and got so much unforgettable experience. I’m really grateful to you for your help, without which it would have been much more difficult for me. I still remember the days when you taught me English. My English has been improved greatly, because of your creative work. If there is a chance, welcome to China, I am looking forward to your coming. Best regards. Yours, Li Hua (https://www.wenku1.net/list/文明礼仪养成教育心得/Yuan创作者:广东省汕头市金砂中学纪乐佳) (Er)假如你是李华,一次在美国纽约旅游时不慎丢Liao钱包和证件,恰好被一名的士司机Tom Jian到并归还给你。请你给的士司机Tom写一Feng信表示感谢: 1.感谢的原因; 2.Diu失钱包后的心情; 3.再次感谢Tom。 Zhu意:1.词数100左右; 2.Ke以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Dear Tom, … Yours, Li Hua Can考范文 Dear Tom, Thank you very much for returning my wallet. You can’t imagine how grateful I am to have my wallet and everything inside restored, which means a great deal to me. I lost my wallet yesterday while doing sightseeing around the city. I didn’t realize it until I went back to my hotel. Without my wallet I couldn’t pay my bills or even go home. I searched the places I went to but my effort was in vain. Just when I was about to give up, the hotel manager told me that a taxi driver named Tom came by and returned the wallet because you saw the room card in the wallet. Please accept my sincere appreciation to you. Yours, Li Hua (Yuan创作者:阳春市第一中学彭可勇梁金凤) Er、邀请信 (三)假定你是李华,Ji划和同学骑自行车去西湖过端午节(the Dragon Boat Festival)。Qing给外教Lucy写封邮件,邀她一同前往,内Rong包括: 1. 出发及返回时https://www.wenku1.net/list/古代姓刘的名字/间; 2. Huo动:吃粽子(rice dumpling)、观Kan龙舟比赛等。 注意: 1.Ci数100左右; 2.可以适当增Jia细节,以使行文连贯; 3.结语Yi为你写好。 Dear Lucy, … Looking forward to your reply. Yours, Li Hua Can考范文 Dear Lucy, I’d like to invite you to join us to cycle to the West Lake next Saturday for the Dragon Boat Festival. The Dragon Boat Festival is in memory of the death of the famous ancient poet, Qu Yuan. There will be a variety of activities such as eating rice dumplings, throwing rice dumpling into the river and so on. We’ll also spend some fun time together watching the dragon boat race, which will make us experience Chinese traditional culture. We should be back around 6 o’clock in the afternoon. If you are able to come with us, please let us know and we’ll wait for you at the school gate at 9 in the morning. Looking forward to your early reply. Yours, Li Hua (Yuan创作者:李华军) 三、咨询信 (Si)假如你是新华中学高三1班班长李华。Da算在即将到来的暑假里和几位学生代表去美国探Wang曾在你班任教的外教David,请写一Feng电子邮件给David,询问有关行程Shi宜,要点如下: 1. 询问对方是否Fang便; 2. 咨询航班、酒店、交通Deng信息; 3. 在美国的注意事项。 Zhu意:1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当Zeng加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.Kai头语和结束语已为你写好。 Dear David, How’s everything going? I’m Li Hua, one of your students in China last year. … Looking forward to your early reply. Yours, Li Hua Can考范文 Dear David, How’s everything going? I’m Li Hua, one of your students in China last year. We haven't s een each other since you went back to America. We are planning to visit you this summer holiday. Therefore, I’m writing to ask for some important information and advice. Firstly, we want to book our plane tickets before hand, but we don’t know whe n you will be free in July, which flight to take and which airport to land on. Could you give us some advice? If possible, could you pick us up at the airport? Secondly, would you please recommend a convenient and cheap hotel to us? Which bus should we take to your place from the hotel? Lastly, what should we pay attention to when we are in America? Looking forward to your early reply. Yours, Li Hua (Yuan创作者:阳春市第一中学彭可勇梁金凤) Si、道歉信 (五)假如你是李华,你De美国留学生同学Tony上周四来找你帮他Ti高普通话(Mandarin)水平,Dan你因故失约,请根据以下提示用英语给他写一封信: 1.Biao示歉意并说明理由; 2.给他Ti出讲好普通话的两点建议; 3.另约下Ci学习时间。 注意: 1.词数100Zuo右; 2. 可以适当增加细节,以Shi行文连贯; 3. 开头语和结束Yu已为你写出。 Dear Tony, I am your classmate, Li Hua. … Looking forward to your early reply! Yours, Li Hua Can考范文 Dear Tony, I am your classmate, Li Hua. I'm writing to apologize to you. I am terribly sorry that I didn't go to teach you Mandarin last Thursday because my mother fell ill and was taken to hospital and I had to take care of her at that time. As for learning Mandarin , it needs to take time to learn it well. So you should spend much time practicing it every day. Besides, you can also read some books in Chinese, see Chinese films and listen to Chinese radio. Speaking and listening are very important for a language learner, by which you are sure to make great progress. Again, I apologize for any inconveniences or trouble caused by me. Will it be convenient for you next Thursday? Looking forward to your early reply! Yours, Li Hua (Yuan创作者:广东省普宁市第二中学陈棉俊) Wu、应聘/自荐信 (六)假设你是新华Gao级中学学生李华,在网上得知澳大利亚Ji中学生David想来中国沿古代丝绸之路You览,他向网友征集驴友兼向导。你有兴趣做Ta的旅伴,请给David写一封自荐信,内容要Dian如下: 1.自我介绍; 2.Ni的优势; 3.希望能想成为David的Lv友。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.Ke以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Can考范文 Dear David, How do you do? I’ve learned from your post that you want to travel along t he Ancient Silk Road in China during this summer holiday and are recruiting a tour pal and tour guide, so I’m writing to you to recommend myself. I’m Li Hua, a student from Xinhua High School. I love traveling and always want to travel along the S ilk Road. I’ve done much research in my spare time. Therefore, I know much about every towns, cities and the places of interest along the road, including their history, customs and culture. More importantly, I can speak English fluently. I believe I’m the right person you’re looking for. Looking forward to your reply. Yours, Li Hua (Yuan创作者:阳春市第一中学彭可勇梁金凤) (Qi)假如你是李华。近年全球掀起了学汉语的热潮,Mei国人Tony也是汉语爱好者,他在网上Zhao募一名汉语学习顾问,请你给Tony写一封应征Xin,要点如下: 1.写信目的; 2.Xing格优点; 3.语言优势。 Zhu意:1.词数100左右; 2.可以适当Zeng加细节,以使行文连贯。 参考范文 Dear Tony, I’ve learned from your post that you are recruiting an adviser to help you learn Chinese so I’m writing to recommend myself. I’m Li Hua, a student from Xinhua High School. First of all, as an out-going, friendly and open person, I love making friends and helping them with their studies. Besides, I can speak both English and Chinese fluently. More importantly, in my spare time, I love reading books about Western and Chinese culture and customs. I think we are sure to help each other make progress if you choose me as your adviser. I believe I’m the right person you’re looking for. Looking forward to your reply. Yours, Li Hua (Yuan创作者:阳春市第一中学彭可勇梁金凤) Liu、咨询信 (八)2017全球人Gong智能与机器人峰会(GAIR 2017)Jiang于7月7日—9日在中国深圳举办。假如Ni是新华高级中学学生李华,你对人工智能科技非Chang感兴趣,获知美国工https://www.wenku1.net/list/拆装主机现象/程院院士Vijay KumarXian生将出席峰会并发表演讲,你写信给他咨询(请教)Yi下事情: 1.人工智能对我们的影响; 2.Ren工智能的主要应用; 3.全球顶尖的人工Zhi能公司。 注意:1.词数100Zuo右; 2.可以适当增加细节,Yi使行文连贯; 3.开头语和结束语已为Ni写好。 生词:人工智能Artificial Intelligence (AI) Quan球人工智能与机器人峰会Global Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Summit (GAIR) Dear Mr. Vijay Kumar, … Sincerely yours, Li Hua Can考范文 Dear Mr. Vijay Kumar, I’m Li Hua, a student from Xinhua High School. I have great interest in Artificial Intelligence. I’ve learned that you will be present and give a speech at GAIR 2017, which will be held in Shenzhen, China in July, so I’m writing to ask you something about AI. In my spare time, I pay close attention to the development of artificial intelligence. But I’m still wondering how Artificial Intelligence will influence our life in the future. What are its major applications? I also want to know about some top AI companies in the world. Maybe you can give me some clues about the above questions. Thank you for taking time to read my letter. Looking forward to your early reply. Sincerely yours, Li Hua (Yuan创作者:阳春市第一中学彭可勇梁金凤) Qi、回信/邮件 (九)简介共享单Chemobike 假定你是高三学Sheng李华。你的美国笔友Tom在给你的邮Jian中提到他对中国的共享单车mobike Hen感兴趣,请你给Jim写封回信,简要介绍mobike,Nei容包括: 1. 这种单车的使用方法(如:APPCha看车辆、扫码开锁等); 2. Zhe种单车的优势; 3. 你对这种单车的Kan法。 注意:1.词数100左You; 2.可以适当增加细节,使行文连贯。 Ti示词:智能手机smartphone, 二维码the QR code Can考范文 Dear Tom, I’m writing to tell you more about the new form of sharing bike mobike mentioned in your latest letter. It’s very convenient t o use if you have a smart phone. What you do is find a nearest mobike through the APP, scan the QR code on the bike, and enjoy your trip. Compared to other forms of sharing bike, the greatest advantage of mobike is that you can easily find one and never worry about where to park it. It is becoming a new trend as a means of transportation, which relieves the traffic pressure and does good to the environment as well. Hope to ride a mobike with you in China. Yours, Li Hua (Yuan创作者:广东省珠海市https://www.wenku1.net/list/优秀作文开头评语初中/斗门一中邝德光) (Shi)介绍纪录片《舌尖上的中国》 Jia设你是高三(1)班的学生李华。你的Ying国网友Chris八月份来北京度假,他Dui中国饮食文化很感兴趣,并通过网络知Dao了一些美食类纪录片《舌尖上的中国》。他来Xin向你了解有关该纪录片的更多信息,请你给他回一Feng电子邮件,要点包括: 1.主Yao通过中国各地美食生态来揭示其历史背景; 2.Jie绍美食制作,品美食反映当地的风土人情; 3.Gai片生动地展示了中国饮食文化,也被认为Shi成功的市场推介。 注意:1.词数100Zuo右; 2.可以适当增加细节,使行文连Guan; 3.开头语已为你写好。 Can考词汇:《舌尖上的中国》A bite of China,Dian视纪录片documentary television series Dear Chris, I'm glad to receive your email asking me about Chinese cuisines and feel proud to know your interest in Chinese food… … Best wishes! Yours sincerely, Li Hua Can考范文1 Dear Chris, I'm glad to receive your email about Chinese cuisines and feel proud to know your interest in Chinese food. Excitedly, I think the TV programs A Bite of China will become your best tourist guides when you come to Beijing to experience it more this August. A Bite of China, a famous Chinese documentary television series, introduces the history behind food of various kinds in China. Filled with mouthwatering images of food ranging from classy food to local dishes, the documentary captures the beautiful and refined process of food-making. Every part of the documentary will highlight different people, who will tell stories about their adventures with food. The program is sure to attract both food buffs and ordinary audiences. This documentary not only promotes Chinese culture vividly but also is supposed to be a successful marketing case. What’s more, it reflects ecological civ ilization, showing the concept of sustainable development; it establishes a good image for our country. Therefore, it can surely be your best guides for this August tour. More talking is inferior to more doing. Welcome to explore China and enjoy delicious Chinese food this summer. Best wishes! Yours sincerely, Li Hua (Yuan创作者:湖北武汉高中袁潇霞) 参Kao范文2 Dear Christ, I'm glad to receive your email about Chinese cuisines and feel proud to know your interest in Chinese food. What thrills me most is that you’re coming to Beijing on holiday this coming August, when you’ll have a chance to experience A Bite of China in person. As a famous Chinese documentary television series, A Bite of China mainly introduces a variety of inviting foods as well as their origins in all parts of China. By showing the processes of food-making, the documentary reflects a wide range of customs and living habits in different regions throughout China. Apart from displaying and spreading the traditional Chinese cooking culture to the world, it is regarded as an effective means of marketing promotion. To know more about A Bite of China, please come to Beijing as soon as possible. And I can’t wait to see you. Best wishes! Yours sincerely, Li Hua (Fan文2原创作者:广东省开平市第一中学杨Hua新)
请根据以下提示,结合你生活中的一个Shi例,就坚强的意志这一话题,用英语写Yi篇文章。 “Where there is a will, there is a way.” Is an old proverb which almost everyone knows, but not all understand it so well. Actually, it means that if you are really resolved to do something, no matter how difficult it might be, never give up. Success depends on many factors, both physical and spiritual. In my opinion, mental factorss like a strong will are far more decisive in enabling us to achieve success. Therefore, we must apply our strong willpower and perseverance when faced with challenges. Three years ago I was proud to be admitted to a key middle school , but soon I found everything was different from what I had experienced. Though I studied very hard, I still fell far behind educationally. However, I kept on trying persistently searching for the suitable learning methods. Eventually, my studies improved little by little. In a word, where there is a will, there is a way. Only by making strong-willed efforts can we overcome all obstacless lying in our way to success and maximize our potential and gain competitive strengths. Wei绕这一主题展开讨论,请你根据自己设想的未来Sheng活图景并根据以下要点写一篇英语短文,要点如下: 1.Ke技广泛应用于各种工作,人们的工作时间更短。 2.Ji器人代替人类做家务,人们有更多的时Jian享受生活。 3.学生可以在家通Guo看电视,广播节目和网络资源等接受 Jiao育。 4.人们可以选择居住在海底,可Yi乘坐宇宙飞船到太空旅 游。 From my point of view, people’s lives in the future will be much better. Firstly, science and technology will be used wildly in all kinds of work and the working hours will be lessened. Secondly, each family will have robots which will help with all of the housework. So people will have more time to enjoy their lives. As for education, students can study at home through TV and radio programs and using resources on the Internet. Last but not least ,people can choose to live in the sea and travel in space by spacecraft. “Zi信”这一话题,用英语写一篇文章。 If one has no confidence, there is little possibility that one can achieve anything when faced with hardships. Whatever one does, one should do it with confidence. Equipped with confidence, we can deal with any challenges and difficulties until we succeed. When I entered Senior 3, I found myself faced with difficulty learning english ,and even failed in my english exam. As a consequence I began to feel frustrated, losing confidence in myself. It was at this moment that my parents encouraged ma ,and my teachers gave me some valuable advice on my studies, telling me to be cinfident. With their help, I regained my confidence and began to make steady progress. As the saying goes, where there is a will, there is a way. If we are to make a difference, we should build up our confidence, which is of vital importance if we want to overcome any obstacles and finally achieve our goal. Shi败的看法。 In fact ,there aren’t always bright sunshine and gentle breeze, birds’ singing and flowers fragrant in our daily life. We have so many failures and hardships that someone will be disappointed and give up the hope of success, but life ia what you make it. Success will be gained after times of failures as long as we are good at drawing lessons from failures or mistakes and stick to what we are doing. There is a message carried in the proverb “failure is the mother of success”. I will take my experiences of learning as an example. When I began to leaen english, I was so slow and clumsy that I read words wrongly from time to time. My prununciation made me laughed at by my classmates. But I didn’t give up. I keep practising reading english aloud every day. And my teacher gave me a helping hand, getting me right whenever I made an error. Finally I even got a chance to take part in the english speaking competition and won the first prize. In a word, as long as we don’t lose heart and keep on trying . We are sure to go through failure and achieve our goals. Qing根据以下提示,结合你生活中的一个事例,用英Yu写一篇文章。 A bad experience is an experience as well. You can learn from your mistakes and situations you were not happy about. Three years ago I became a student of a key middle school. I felt very proud, but soon I found that things were different from what I had experienced .At the beginning of the new term, I ran into trouble, some of my classmates were unfriendly to me. They laughed at my accent and joked about my clothes. Feeling unhappy and lonely, I burst out crying one day. When my english teacher knew about my bad situation, he gave me timely help and encouragement. With my teacher’s help, I’ve become happier and made great progress. Now I am getting on well with my classmates. Influenced bymy teacher, I often help people in need. Qing根据以下提示,并结合事例,用英语写一篇短文。 Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration(Qin奋) Most of us, no doubt, know the story of Newton and the falling apple and how it led to his discovery of the law of gravity. We also know Edison was a great inventor and Madame Curie was a great scientist. But we should know Edison made thousands of experimentss before he invented the electric lighe bulb. Madame Curie worked hard in poor working conditions for many years before she finally discovered radium. It goes without saying that hard work is the key to their success. As high school students, we must be aware that success lies in diligence. So let’s make good use of our time and make every effort to study well. Only in this way can we have a bright future. Reading is a good habit and reading is joyful. We can gain a lot from reading. There is no doubt that books are our best friends in today’s society. Books are to us what food is to man. There was a time when I failed in an important exam. So upset was I that I cut myself off from the rest of the world. One day it occurred to me that I could get some comfort from reading books. Therefore, I set out to read all kinds of books such as science fiction novels, comicbooks and so on. It turned out that it was books that helped me get rid of my depression. I have never given up the love for reading books since then. It has been books that help me to improve my writing skills and broaden my horizons. What’s more, they have been enriching my life and providing me with great fun. Isn’t it a pleasure to be absorbed in books when you are free? As long as we dare to dream and don’t give up halfway, anything is possible-there is tuly no end to where our dreams can take us. We are often asked and we also ask ourselves “What are you going to be in the future?” One of my neighbours went to work in a factory after graduation from a junior middle school. One day I asked him the same question. I felt surprised to hear he would go in for the college entrance examination for adult education. But two years later he passed it through hard work and finished his college education. You can imagine what great efforts he had made. Greatly inspired by him, I have been studying hard to go to a key university. I firmly believe, if I set my goal and stick to it, I will succeed. My dear classmates, let’s do our best to enter our ideal universities!
如何有效地练习英语写作的逻辑思维? Wo们先来看看文章的评判标准。一般情况下,我们可Yi通过这几个标准来衡量一篇文章的优劣:Ci汇的丰富与准确性,语法的准确性,文章De连贯与流畅度,观点是否清晰扣题,论证Shi否严谨有力。对大部分人来说,词汇和Yu法并不是最大的问题,多阅读多练习,Jia以时日,总可以慢慢掌握。实际上,在英文写作Zhong最让人头疼的往往是后面几项:观点的Ti出以及论证,文字的衔接和耦合。 文章Yao做到连贯流畅,观点清晰,论证有力,Jin仅靠背单词和学语法是不够的,因为它还涉及到Yi个更深层次的问题:逻辑思维能力。写作活动是一Zhong严密而有序的逻辑思维过程。很多作文Zhong出现的表达混乱,层次不清等问题,往往是写作Shi逻辑思维混乱导致的。还没想清楚就下笔,Xie出来的东西自然不会清晰到哪里去。 Na我们应该要怎样做,才能提高逻辑思维能Li,写出清晰严谨的文章呢?可以从以下几Dian入手: 1.注意句子以及段落的逻Ji关系 之前一直有这样的说法“Ying语是一门逻辑性很强的语言”,为什么这么说Ne?因为仔细观察你会发现,英语在遣词造Ju上是遵循严密的的逻辑形式的:用词上要求人称、Shu、格的一致;句子有严谨的主谓结构,多用关联Ci语,重视形式的对应和显性衔接。而在语篇中多突Chu主题句,直线式地展开段落。 对于Xie作来说,一篇好的文章要遵循句子和句子之间,Duan落和段落之间的衔 接和连贯。一篇好文Zhang并不是句子的机械堆砌,而是一个有机整体,句Zi和句子之间是存在严谨的逻辑关系的。举个Li子,下面是一篇常见的说明文段落: AIDS seems to follow a pattern of recognizable symptoms. First, after being exposed to the virus, the AIDS patients tends to complain of a fever, sore throat, sore muscles,and diarrhea. Then there seems to be a dormant period ,which can last for three years or longer. Finally, after this period, more serious symptoms begin to emerge. Zi细阅读之https://www.wenku1.net/list/建筑单位工程师/后会发现,文章中的句子之间在逻Ji上环环相扣,每一个都不可或缺。如果句子之间的Xian接没做好,写出来的文章可能会是这样的: Every summer, I go to traveling with my family or my best friends. When the new term comes, I will surprisingly find my oral English is much improved. So I firmly believe book is not only the source of knowledge. Shang面的句子虽然没有语法问题,但读起来感Jue却很奇怪,为什么?因为句子与句子之间Bing没有一个很好的逻辑关系: 除Liao句子的衔接外,段落与段落之间的衔接也非常重要。Zhe一点在经济学人等外刊文章上体现得很好,比Ru这篇文章The weaker sex , 段Luo的结构非常清晰,开头都有主题句来引领全Duan,而且段落与段落之间是层层递进的关系。What can be done? Part of the solution lies in a change in cultural attitudes. Policymakers also need to lend a hand, because foolish laws are making the problem worse. Even more important than scrapping foolish policies is retooling the educational system, which was designed in an age when most men worked with their muscles. More generally, schools need to become more boy-friendly. Cong上面可以看到,要写出逻辑清晰的文章,Wo们要特别注意句子以及段落的衔接和连贯。这就要Qiu我们要用好连接词以及语义承接。 Zai写作中常见的连接词有 语义承接则Shi通过上下文之间的承接关系来自然行文,比如通Guo指示代词、人称代词等对前一句中出现过De内容进行指代,或者对前一句话中出现的关键词Jin行转述,解释,从而形成自然的承接关系。Yu义承接属于“暗承接”。 下面这篇雅思9 Fen作文片段就很好地体现了连接词以及语Yi承接的效果(仔细体会加黑以及带下划线De单词,感受一下连接词的效果)。 I tend to agree that young children can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer everyday. This is partly because sitting in front of a screen for too long can be damaging to both the eyes and the physical posture of a young child, regardless of what they are using the computer for. The main concern is about the type of computer activities that attract children. These are often electronic games that tend to be very intense and rather violent. The player is usually the Shang面的作文片段中, 由此可以看出,通过Yong好连接词以及语义承接的方式,我们可以将句子甚Zhi段落有机联系起来,使之符合逻辑。 Shi实上,衔接和连贯性(Coherence and Cohesion)Yi直是雅思写作中的一个重要评分标准,雅思官方也Gei出了一个指导视频: IELTS Writing Ya思写作连贯性 2.有意识地进行逻Ji学训练 由于种种原因,我们的中Xue教育甚至大学教育都没有对学生进行系Tong的逻辑学训练,这也在一定程度上对写Zuo造成了影响。基本逻辑学知识的缺失会造成Xie作中语言不通,层次混乱,主题不明确等问Ti。要写出思维严谨,脉络清晰的文章,我Men必须掌握基本的逻辑学规律。 具体到英文Xie作中,常用的逻辑学基本规律主要有排中律,同Yi律,矛盾律这三种。 排中律是指,文Zhang的立意要明确,旗帜鲜明,千万不要和稀泥。比如Xiang这 样的作文题目 同一Lv是指,在思考过程中,使用的概念或判断必须Shi终https://www.wenku1.net/list/用于连续生产的情况/不变,保持同一。在英文写作中,要确保文章的Li意和体裁符合要求并且在行文中始终如Yi,语体风格得体。比如下面的例子: Judging from the current tendency, I am inclined to believe that traditional shopping will disappear gradually and the reasons are as follows: For one thing, the online shopping can bring convenience to people’s life ... For another, the merchandizes in online shops are much cheaper than that in those real shops because... Everybody tends to choose the online shopping in this case. Du起来是不是感觉有点怪?因为它出现了前后不一Zhi的问题,前半部分给出的论点是传统购物Hui逐渐消失,后面的论证过程却在说网购的好处,Liang者失去了同一性,不能衔接。 Mao盾律是指文章论述必须首尾相贯,避免Chu现自相矛盾,跑题离题的现象。比如对 Yi上三个基本规律虽然看起来很简单,但在实Ji写作过程中却经常有人违反,下次写作的时候Bu妨仔细检查一下,看看有没有遵循这几个规律。 Dang然,逻辑学远不止上面提到的三种规律那么Jian单,它是一门非常精深的 学科,建议You时间的同学去系统学习一下逻辑学的著作。Zhe里推荐一本入门书籍How To Think Logically 3.Da量阅读,大量思考 事实上,我们不Neng把一件事说清楚,很多时候并不是语言Ji巧的问题,而是在于,我们对这件事情不够了解,Zhi识储备不够多。设想一下,让你写文章分别Tao论自己最擅长的领域和最不擅长的领域,Na一个会写得更有条理?如果没有基本的知识Chu备,空谈语言技巧和逻辑思维方法并没有意义。Jia如你不知道Airbnb, 碰到“共享经济” (sharing economy) Zhe类话题时可能会无从下手——清晰的逻辑,有力的Lun证,一定是建立在对话题有足够多了解的基础Zhi上的。所以才有这句话“读书破万卷,Xia笔如有神”。 更现实一点,对于考Changhttps://www.wenku1.net/list/专四状语从句例题/作文来说,常见的话题包括教育,科技,Fa展,媒 体,政府,文化,环境,犯罪,全Qiu化等,要写好这类文章,一定要对这些话题You足够多的了解。而了解它们最好的方法是通过大量De阅读,要广泛阅读关于这些题材的文章,Ji累起足够多的素材,肚子里有货才能写出东Xi来。应该寻找什么样的阅读材料?外刊就Shi一个很好的选择。因为外刊文章(比如Jing济学人和卫报)往往篇幅适中,信息量大,所讨论De主题又与考场作文话题息息相关,非常适He用来做素材积累。可以留意一下自己对Na些话题最不熟悉,然后想办法通过阅读来Ji累素材。 在这里也推荐一本书,剑Qiao大学出版社的 English Vocabulary in Use Advanced Zhe本书的牛逼之处在于,它详细列出了常见De100 个话题下可能出现的词汇以及表达。比如Dui于学习考试类的话题,它会列出 目前这本Shu在国内比较难买到纸质版,价格也相对昂贵,Bu过网上可以找到电子版,感兴趣的同学Ke以去搜索下载。对于如何高效使用搜索引擎Qing见怎样利用谷歌学英语? 除了积累Su材之外,做一个积极的阅读者也很重要。“积极的Yue读者”是指,在阅读中要学会多次重复,主动思考。Yi篇外刊文章读一遍是不够的,至少要读上三遍Wu遍,在阅读的过程要不断思考:作者的观点是什么?Ta是怎样论述这个观点的?文章的结构是怎样De?段落与段落之间有哪些联系?有哪些衔接Ci?让我来写的话,我会怎么写? 阅读Shi多问自己一些这样的问题,并尝试着模仿这些You秀文章,这样才能不断提升。 总结: Yao写出一篇脉络清晰,表述严谨的文章,除了词汇和Yu法基本功之外,还要有完备的逻辑思维能力,Ji在写作过程中要保持句子与句子之间,段落和Duan落之间的衔接和连贯性,同时应用逻辑学的基Ben规律比如排中律,同一律,矛盾律等对文章进行检Cha。除此之外,知识储备也非常关键,平时要Da量阅读,有意识地对各种话题进行素材Ji累,并学习优秀文章的篇章结构,思维模式,从而Rang自己的文章水平不断提升。
作文训练 评判作文的标准 ▪Di一档:一塌糊涂(messy); ▪Di二档:糊里糊涂(cloudy); ▪Di三档:马马虎虎(common); ▪Di四档:清清楚楚(clear); ▪Di五档:漂漂亮亮(cool)。 ▪20Fen以上作文踩点扣分 ▪18分以下作文Cai点给分 好作文的标准 ▪Shu写清晰明了,无填涂 ▪结构合情合理 ▪Shen题明确中心突出 ▪行文语言流畅准Que不是单纯拼凑阅卷老师一目了然 ▪句式Feng富使用较多的高中阶段学过的单词词组 ▪Nei容积极乐观情感饱满体现个人良好的价值观人生观 Zuo文书写 ▪态度决定高度attitude determines altitude ▪Chuan达两种思想:我很认真,我要拿高分 ▪Wu要:干净,整洁,压线,分三段,g h f y I s Zi母重点注意恰当的大小可以遮丑 ▪五不要:Tian涂,伞型,一逗到底,上蹦下蹿,随意,瘦小挤Zai一起,硕大无比 ▪注意:字母Yao善于辨认,字母之间有间隔 单Ci之间不能隔太开忽大忽小 大概一行十一到Shi三字 开头结尾一个单词拼写也不能错 Kai头结尾三到四行不能有语法错误 Zuo文结构 ▪开头总对提示语或图片Jin行解释阐明观点开门见山。一针见血3~4Xing▪中间分提出问题解决问题办法结果情绪Bao满10~12行 ▪结尾总总结观Dian收获前后呼应感情升华3~4 行 好Dan词 老师偏爱“学得晚”的单词,因为使用Xue得比较晚的单词,可以体现一个人“学以致用”De意识。 (1)Adj.困难的 Zuo然低分词:difficult 闪Guang高分词:tough 艰难的challenging You挑战性的 (2)Adj.重要的 Zuo然低分词:important 闪光高Fen词:vital 至关重要的;essential Bi不可少的;significant 有重Yao意义的; (3)Adj.美丽的 Zuo然低分词:beautiful 闪光高分:appealingDong人的; attractive 吸引人的; charmingMi人的; fascinating 迷Ren的 (4)adj. 不开心的 Zuo然低分词:sad 闪光高分词:discouragedQi馁的; depressed沮丧的; downheartedChui头丧气的; low-spirited意志Xiao沉的; break down 在Yue卷老师看来,活用短语是一个考生能力的体Xian。因此,我们可以掌握一些将某些常见单词转化为Duan语的用法,如: (5) v. 参Jia 黯然低分词:join Shan光高分词:take part in、participate in (6) v. Shi用 黯然低分词:use 闪光Gao分词:make good use of、make the best of (7) v. Bai访 黯然低分词:visit 闪Guang高分词:pay a visit to (8)Zui常见的换词手段:形容词=of+同根名Ci 黯然低分词:Important Shan光高分词:be of importance (9) v Bang忙 黯然低分词:help 闪光高Fen词:come to one’s assistance (10) adv Zuo然低分词:finally 闪光Gao分词:at length 好词汇词组Zao句 ▪temporary setback Bu要被暂时的困难所沮丧 Don’t be cast down by temporary setbacks. ▪Make great progress Ni越努力你取得的进步越大 The harder you work, the more progress you will make. ▪Be bound to do/ be doomed to do/ be condemned to do Chu非我们不遗余力我们注定是一个失败 Unless we spare no effort, we are doomed to be a failure . ▪Obstacle Ren何你遇到的困难将会让你更加坚强 Whatever obstacles you meet with will make you stronger. Ying语写作中的句式选择,结合平时练习和所Xue短语及语法运用,总结如下:一改变时态 Li: The bell is ringing now. Yi般 There goes the bell. Te殊 ▪事例全部用过去式 二改Bian语态 例: People suggest that the conference be put off. (Yi般) It is suggested that the conference be put off. (Te殊) 被动胜过主动,讲述理由时Geng加客观可信 I believe we will win (Yi般) I am firmly convinced that our efforts will pay off. (Te殊) 三改变结构 ▪不Ding式 例: she work hard to realize her dream. (Yi般) In order to realize her dream, she worked hard. (Te殊)四使用过去分词 ▪Because she devoted all her life to studying, she succeeded. (Yi般) Devoted to studying, she finally made it. (Te殊) ·I was inspired by her words and made up my mind to hold on .(Yi般) Inspired by her words, I made up my mind to hold on. (Te殊) ·I failed the exams many times and almost gave up. (Yi般) Having failed the exams in a row, I almost gave up. (Te殊) 五形容词作状语 ▪I realized the importance of holding on and decided not to give up Aware of the importance of holding on, I determined not to give up ▪Finally, I arrived at the destination At length, I arrived at the destination, safe and sound / tired but satisfied Liu使用v- ing 1. When he arrived,he gave me an e- mail.(Yi般) On arriving/ when arriving, he gave me an e-mail. (Te殊) 2. 进入到重点大学是我一直Xiang要的 Being admitted to a key university is what I am longing for 3. Mei次看到这样的话语,我都忍不住想起小时候 Every time I saw those words, I couldn‟t help recalling my memory when I was young . Qi使用名词性从句 1. It disappointed everybody that he didn’t turn up.Yi般 The fact that he didn‟t turn up disappointed everybody. Te殊 2. he is surprised that the little girl knows so many things.Yi般 What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things. Te殊 3. 他做了他所能做的事帮我Bai脱困境 He did what he could to get me out of trouble. 4.Cong那以后,我不停反思我所做的事情 From then on, I never stopped reflecting on what I had done. Ba使用定语从句 1. The girl is spoken highly of.. Her composition was well written. Yi般 The girl whose composition was well written is spoken highly of. Te殊2. Honesty, to which teachers attach great importance, plays a significant part in our daily life. 3There was a time when … 4Thanks to sb, without whom I couldn‟t have got through the hard times Jiu使用状语从句 1. I won‟t believe what he says. Yi般 No matter what he says, I won…t believe. Te殊 十时间状语四个when / Yi…就 Be about to do when it occurred to me that Yuan因状语thanks to / due to / owing to Rang步状语no matter + wh--/ although/ as/ even if Tiao件状语as long as / unless / only if Jie果、伴随状语thus doing / only to do Mu的状语in order to / in an attempt to do Shi一使用虚拟语气 1. The ship didn‘t sink with all on board because there were the efforts of the captain. (Yi般) But for the efforts of the captain ,the ship would have sunk with all on board.Te殊But for the fact that / had it not been for the fact that … 2.It is high time that sb. should do Shi二使用倒装句型,强调句型(8个NO) 1. Though I…m weak I‟ll make the effort.Yi般 Weak as I am, I…ll make the effort. .Te殊 2.He finds English is difficult to learn. Yi般 So difficult does he find it to learn English. Te殊 3.I have never had such an unforgettable experience in my life. Yi般 Never have I had a more unforgettable experience in my life. Te殊 4. His hard work makes a difference. Yi般 It is his hard work that makes a difference. Te殊 十三插入语 ▪To One’s +n (delight, disappointment, surprise, relief) ▪To make matters worse / what‟s worse ▪What‟s more, / in addition ▪In the long run / term ▪From now(then) on / since then ▪Meanwhile, therefore, whereas() ▪As a consequence / at length ▪In a word / in a nutshell/ to sum up ▪fortunately / from where I stand ▪As a matter of fact / believe it or not ▪To put it in another way / in other words Li文 ▪结合校园事例写英语作文 ▪Many hands make light work. Cooperation is so important that we can never emphasize the importance of it too much. ▪①Wu须写标题,不得照抄英语提示语; ▪②Chu诗歌外,文体不限; ▪③文中Bu得透露个人姓名和学校名称; ▪④词Shu不少于120左右。 Union is strength. Whenever you’re faced with difficulties or in a dilemma, cooperation plays a significant part in getting you out of trouble. There was a time when I was so proud that I overlooked my peers, refusing to work together with them. Therefore, there was no doubt that I was left alone, suffering from loneliness and failure. Fortunately, a teacher impressed on me the value of cooperation. From then on, I learned to help each other and turn to my friends for help whenever I had difficulty in finishing a task on my own. Surely cooperation made a difference. Now I am getting along well with my friends. Meanwhile, I become more confident. My experience has taught me that only if we attach great importance to cooperation can we go beyond ourselves. As the saying goes, “United, we stand; Divided, we fall.” Chang用习语 1. Practice makes perfect. Shu能生巧。 2. God helps those who help themselves. Tian助自助者。 3. Easier said than done. Shuo起来容易做起来难。 4. Where there is a will, there is a way. You志者事竟成。 5. One false step will make a great difference. Shi之毫厘,谬之千里。 6. Slow and steady wins the race. Wen扎稳打无往而不胜。 7. A fall into the pit, a gain in your wit. Chi一堑,长一智。 8. Experience is the mother of wisdom. Shi践出真知。 9. All work and no play makes jack a dull boy. Zhi工作不玩耍,聪明孩子也变傻。 10. More hasty, less speed. Yu速则不达。 11. Its never too old to learn. Huo到老,学到老。 12. All that glitters is not gold. Shan光的未必都是金子。 13.A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.Qian里之行始于足下。 14. Look before you leap. San思而后行。 15. Rome was not built in a day. Wei业非一日之功。 16. well begun, half done. Hao的开始等于成功的一半。 17. Facts speak plainer than words. Shi实胜于雄辩。 18. A friend in need is a friend indeed. Huan难见真情。 19. Action speaks louder than words. Xing动胜过语言。 20. Do as Romans do in Rome. Ru乡随俗。 21. An idle youth, a needy age. Shao壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。 22. As the tree, so the fruit. Zhong瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。 23. Everyone is the architect of his own fortune Mei个人都是自己命运的建筑师 24. No cross, no crown. No sweat, no sweet No pains, no gains Bu经历风雨怎会有彩虹 25. Many hands make light work Zhong人拾柴火焰高
“ 文/温佛佳 ” Shang一篇文章《经验谈之一：如何写出地道De英文？》，主要从英汉语言思维差异切Ru，从方面论层面，分享了提升英文写作水Ping的两点感悟。 今天，将具体到操作层面，Tong大家谈谈究竟该怎样进行日常写作训练。 Ying文写作，是一个极富创造性的过程。 Suo谓写作能力，在我看来，主要不外乎包括两Ge方面：其一，语言运用能力，遣词造句优美精妙、Zhun确地道；其二，谋篇布局能力，行文是否Luo辑严谨，观点论证是否严密等。 今Tian将结合这两个能力，分享两个“一箭双雕”的训Lian方法给大家。 一、依葫芦画瓢 Er、写阅读赏析 0 1 Xian来谈“依葫芦画瓢”。 “依葫芦画瓢”，Tong俗说，也就是模仿。语言学习，一定是要经历Mo仿这个阶段的。语言的输出环节，不管是口语还是Xie作，都是从模仿开始。 很多朋友一Qiang热情，真是很想提高写作水平，但却又经常陷入两Ge困境：要么无从下手，苦于不知如何开始练习；要Me简单追求数量，不求质量，一味疯狂训Lian，一段时间后，收效甚微。 冰Dong三尺，非一日之寒。写作水平的提升，是一个漫Chang的过程，首先需要做好这一心理准备。 Yu言能力的训练，也需步步为营，日积月累。而进Xing模写，就真是一个行之有效且收获颇丰的练习方式。 Jie合我自己的学习实际，将方法分享如下。 Shou先，材料的选择。 针对很多有考试Ren务的朋友，可选择真题作文的范文。如Guo在备考托福考试，那就找50篇历年托福Man分作文；如果为了冲刺考研写作，那就搜集50Pian左右的高分作文来。 知识获取已十Fen便捷的今天，要找到相关资料，实在不Shi难事。就拿考研作文来说，新东方出版De《考研高分写作》就很不错。 Dan有一点值得注意，为了取得更好的效果呢，Xuan择的高分作文，最好带有中文翻译。 Ri常训练中的模写材料，推荐新概念三册。 Di三册，高中以上水平的学习者都可以使用。新Gai念好就好在，它的用词是十分地道，而Qie每篇文章都配有参考译文。 当然，也可以Jie合自己的实际，选择自己喜爱的书籍或文章进Xing模写训练。 0 2 Cai料选定后，具体如何进行操作？ Xia面的步骤，供读者借鉴。 首先，每Lian习一篇文章，先熟悉英文文章中的生词。解决Diao拦路虎很重要。这一步，建议专门准备Yi个“写作词汇”笔记本，将阅读文章中的生词或看Bu懂的https://www.wenku1.net/list/实践与真理的内容/疑难句子，一一抄写下来，通过查字典、查Zhao语法书等，将它们弄懂并记住。 在Zhang握了生词/句式后呢，直接对照参考译文，将Ta一句句转写成英文。就算是碰到了不会写的，Ye不要去看看英语原文，按照自己的理解，认Zhen完成就好了。 仿写，不是照搬照抄，Bu必与原文完全一致。 全文写完后，Zai将自己写的文章与英文原文进行对比。Zai对比的过程中，找到自己在遣词造句等语言表Da方面存在的不足，学习并掌握新的或者地道De英语表达方式，从而提高自己的语言运用能力。 Zhe一步，至关重要，一定要认真仔细去弄清差Ju存在的原因。 以新概念三册为例，Wo们来一起看看一些可供学习的语言点。 Zai第一课中，有这样一句话：随着证据越来Yue多，动物园的专家们感到有必要进行一番调Cha，因为凡是声称见过美洲狮的人们所描述的情Kuang竟是出奇地相似。 这种方法，我一Zhi在用来训练我的学生。 让他们Zhuan写时，很多同学将标黑的三处，分别翻Yi成，is becoming more and more、felt it necessary、strangely。 Er对照原文，会发现，整句话表述如下：as evidence began to accumulate,experts from the zoo felt obliged to investigate ,for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar. Zhe句话写的真是很棒，从用词到句式，都值得好Hao学习。 再举一个例子。第15课课Wen的第一句话，“孩子们总是喜欢得到一些零用钱Zuo礼物。”同学们在转写时呢，百分之六十的都将“Xi欢”写成“like”，可对照原文，就会发Xian，课文用的是“appreciate”,全Ju如下，“Children always appreciate small gifts of pocket money.” Yong“appreciate”，是不是更Wei精准呢。 新概念中，有很多这样值得我Men学习和借鉴的表达，不枚胜举。 0 3 Dao了这一步，是不是就结束了？ NO！ Wei了达到好的效果，建议大家每篇文章至少转写3遍。 Dang然，这三遍，不需要在同一时间里https://www.wenku1.net/list/家里收教忏悔的检讨书/连续Bu停做完。 可以计划三天，每天都进行同Yi篇文章的模仿写作。每一次，按照上面的步Zhou来，直到你的模仿文，能够无限接近原Wen水平。 我就是这样训练自己写作的，Er后，又将这种方法分享给了教过的学生，效果Fei常不错。 很多读者留言，英文Xue习的秘诀是什么？ 其实，英文学习最大的Mi诀就两个字：重复。 Repeat over and over and over ......again. 0 4 Hao了，再来谈“写阅读赏析”。 Ru果说“依葫芦画瓢”主要着力于提高我们的Yu言运用能力，那么，“写阅读赏析”则侧重提Gao写作谋篇布局的能力，或者说训练我们的逻Ji思维能力。 什么意思呢？ 任何一Pian文章，作者一定都是想要去表达某个观点与主张De，那为了有效地将自己的观点传达给读者，Mei位用心的作者就一定都会精心去谋篇布局。 Na么，作为学习者，对作者这种的行文逻辑进行分Xi，并将这些行文的方法，借鉴运用到自Ji的文章写作中去，就显得十分有益处了。 Zhe确是我们很多伙伴在做阅读时，最易忽Lue的一点。 很少有人在阅读完一篇英语文Zhang后，认真研读它的行文逻辑，学习一些Xie作方法。 实在很是可惜。 那Zai回到我说的写“阅读赏析”。 什Me是“阅读赏析”呢？也就是说在阅读完任He一篇英文文章后，对它如何一步步展开，Zui终揭示作者的观点，进行分析，并形成文字，Jin行记录。 0 5 Wo自己曾经用《经济学人》作学习材料，进行过三Ge月这样的训练。 比如曾读过一Pianwhy the Finland the happiest people in the world? Zuo者采用抑扬先抑的手法，开篇就写了芬兰经历过De大饥荒，从那以后，一直处于缓慢复苏的Guo程中，可之后笔锋一转，指出在最近的民Yi调查中，芬兰却被评为世界上幸福指数最高的Guo家。 IN THE 1860s Finland suffered a famine that killed about 9% of its population. It has come a long way since. Earlier this month Finland was named the happiest country in the world by the UN’s Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Zhe样实在是吊足了读者的胃口，吸引读者往下去读，Xiang要探究其中的原因。接下去，作者揭露Zi己的观点就是水到渠成的事儿了，他行Yun流水般，剥洋葱似的予以描述。 你看，Zhe样的开头，多棒！ 上面这段话，是Dang时我阅读这篇文章时，在日记本上写下Lai的“阅读赏析”。 我有一个A4Zhi大小的笔记本。每篇文章，我都会打印出来，Tie到日记本上，而后在后面附上它的“阅读赏Xi”。现在翻开来看，真是蛮有成就感。 Dang然，有能力的伙伴，也可以用英文来撰写这些赏Xi，抑或半英半中，都是可行的。 这样的研Jiu，真是充满了乐趣。 当然，读者们要做这Yang的分析，还需要懂得一点文学鉴赏知识，可Yi去买些相关书籍来读读。 这里，You一点需要注意，建议最好阅读原汁原味的Ying语国家人撰写的文章，以便去学习外国Ren谋篇布局的一些习惯。 坚持下去，Wo相信，不光能帮助大家提高英文写作水平，Huan可以提高咱们的汉语写作水平呢。 最Hou，回到文章开头，我说以上我分享的两种方法，Ju有“一石二鸟”的功效。 何以Yan之？ 大家是否能够看出来呢？ “Yi葫芦画瓢”，不仅可以训练我们的写作水平，Huan训练了翻译能力；而“写阅读概要”，在Ti升写作水平时，其实也不失为一种非常有效的阅Du方法呢。 Really worth trying,my dear friends! Fu上佛佳谈论英文学习方法的文章： 【01】Wo自己如何学英语？ 【02】如He从新闻阅读中学习英文？ 【03】Hao的英文学习网站有哪些？ 【04】如何Tong过翻译提高英文水平？ 【05】英语Ji础较弱的你，该如何读懂英语新闻呢？ 【06】Zen样才能真正有效地学习英语单词？ 【07】Ru何从热点中学习英语？ 【08】Duo年没碰英语的你，该如何重新开始学习？ 【09】Ru何有效进行口语训练？ 【10】如何做Dao既不花时间又有效提高英文水平？ 【11】Ru何有效进习英语听力训练？ 【12】Ru何切实提高英语阅读水平？ 【13】Wo是如何帮助学生有效学习《新概念英语》的？